Cell polarity refers lớn the intrinsic asymmetry observed in cells, either in their shape, structure, or organization of cellular components. Most epithelial cells, migrating cells và developing cells require some khung of cell polarity for their function. These cells receive sầu information about their surroundings via extracellular biochemical cùng mechanical cues với translate those information into polarity of the plasma membrane, its associated proteins với cytoskeletal organization. Once established, cell polarity is maintained by transcytosis, in which vesicles carry incorrectly-localized membrane proteins khổng lồ the correct regions in the plasma membrane. In addition, tight junctions, which act as ‘fences’ against transmembrane diffusion, lochồng the asymmetry in place. Therefore, plays an essential regulatory role in both the establishment và maintenance of cell polarity.

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Epithelial cells become polarized along the apical-basal axis. The apical membrane faces the lumen với is rich in PAR và Crumbs protein complexes. The basolateral membrane contains the Scribble complex với faces the extracellular matrix.

Epithelial cells establish an apical-basal polarity, which results from the differential distribution of phospholipids, protein complexes, cùng cytoskeletal components between the various plasma membrane domains, reflecting their specialized functions. The membrane facing the lumen or không lấy phí surface is known as the apical membrane, while the membrane oriented away from the lumen, contacting theextracellular matrix, is known as the basal membrane với the sides of the cell contacting the neighboring cells form the lateral membrane . The apico-basal polarization of epithelial cells is known khổng lồ be a pre-requisite for their fundamental biological roles. These include regulating the vectorial transport of ions across cell sheets during their barrier function as well as ensuring directionality during their secretory với absorptive sầu functions .


Developmental polarity is observed along three axes; anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral với left-right. This polarity can be established by concentration gradients of secreted proteins, or by asymmetric organisation of cellular components, such as the cytoskeleton.

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In other specialized cells such as immune cells cùng neurons, cell polarity enables the short-range cùng long-range transmission of various electrical với biochemical signals. For instance, A typical unipolar neuron has a highly distinctive shape và structure, with one over adapted to lớn receive sầu signals through highly branched dendrites. This signal is then transmitted down an axon, which can stretch the length of the body. At the other kết thúc of the cell is the axon terminal, where the synapses are located. These synapses can release chemical neurotransmitters in order to lớn propagate the signal or effect an action such asmuscle contraction.


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